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essay代寫-Identify strategies to make virtual teams more productive

文章類型:essay 發布時間:2020-04-09

隨著公司業務的不斷全球化和分散化,許多公司引入了虛擬團隊來響應動態環境(Zigurs,2003年)。 Stamps(1997)將虛擬團隊定義為一群人,他們通過技術進行交互,沒有時間,空間和組織的界限,旨在實現一個共同的目標。團隊成員主要依靠信息和通信技術進行協調和協作,這不可避免地擴大了團隊不同文化之間的跨度,并影響了團隊的社會互動過程(Townsend,1998)。但是,不確定這些優點是否會超過可能的行為缺點。如何提高虛擬團隊的生產力成為研究人員的主要問題。作者的主要思想如下。
首先,信任的氣氛有助于建立健康的組織文化。人們懷疑在缺乏面對面互動的環境中很難建立信任。根據Jarvenpaa和Leidner(1988)的說法,在信任度高的團隊中,團隊成員會及時積極地響應電子郵件,而在信任度低的團隊中,團隊成員的熱情是在整個團隊的生命周期中相對較低。為了彌補地理分布的不足,組織應該建立一個共享的空間,以便團隊成員之間能夠真正進行溝通。此外,加強共享和交流的意識也很重要。企業可以設計一個新的協作信息系統來確定參與者的角色,并讓員工定義自己的任務和整個公司的宏偉目標。建立知識共享文化,使所有參與者都具有溝通和合作感;設計所需的協作信息系統,包括設計數據庫,系統接口和計算機支持的協作工具;衡量虛擬企業中的合作和共享程度,以幫助員工提高質量并領導管理決策。
With the continuous globalization and decentralization of corporate business, many companies have introduced virtual teams to respond to dynamic environments (Zigurs, 2003). Stamps (1997) defines virtual teams as a group of people interacting through technology with no boundaries of time, space as well as organization, aiming to achieve a common goal. Team members rely primarily on information and communication technologies to coordinate and collaborate, which inevitably increases the span between different cultures of the team and affect the team’s social interaction process (Townsend, 1998). However, it is uncertain whether these advantages will outweigh the possible behavioral disadvantages. How to improve the productivity of virtual teams becomes a major problem to the researchers. The main ideas of the author are listed below.
Firstly, the climate of trust contributes to a healthy organizational culture. People suspect that it is hard to build trust in an environment where face-to-face interaction is lacking. According to Jarvenpaa and Leidner (1988), in a team with a high level of trust, the team members actively respond to the email in a timely manner, while in a team with a low level of trust, the enthusiasm of the team members is relatively low throughout the team's life cycle. To make up for the shortcomings in geographical distribution, organizations should establish a shared space so that team members can truly communicate with each other. Moreover, strengthening the awareness of sharing and communication also matters. Enterprise can design a new collaborative information system to determine the role of participants and let employees define their own tasks and the ambitious goals of the entire company; create a knowledge sharing culture so that all participants have a sense of communication, and cooperation; design the required collaborative information system, including designing databases, system interfaces, and computer-supported collaboration tools; measure the degree of cooperation and sharing in the virtual enterprise to help employees improve their quality and lead management decisions.With the continuous globalization and decentralization of corporate business, many companies have introduced virtual teams to respond to dynamic environments (Zigurs, 2003). Stamps (1997) defines virtual teams as a group of people interacting through technology with no boundaries of time, space as well as organization, aiming to achieve a common goal. Team members rely primarily on information and communication technologies to coordinate and collaborate, which inevitably increases the span between different cultures of the team and affect the team’s social interaction process (Townsend, 1998). However, it is uncertain whether these advantages will outweigh the possible behavioral disadvantages. How to improve the productivity of virtual teams becomes a major problem to the researchers. The main ideas of the author are listed below.
Firstly, the climate of trust contributes to a healthy organizational culture. People suspect that it is hard to build trust in an environment where face-to-face interaction is lacking. According to Jarvenpaa and Leidner (1988), in a team with a high level of trust, the team members actively respond to the email in a timely manner, while in a team with a low level of trust, the enthusiasm of the team members is relatively low throughout the team's life cycle. To make up for the shortcomings in geographical distribution, organizations should establish a shared space so that team members can truly communicate with each other. Moreover, strengthening the awareness of sharing and communication also matters. Enterprise can design a new collaborative information system to determine the role of participants and let employees define their own tasks and the ambitious goals of the entire company; create a knowledge sharing culture so that all participants have a sense of communication, and cooperation; design the required collaborative information system, including designing databases, system interfaces, and computer-supported collaboration tools; measure the degree of cooperation and sharing in the virtual enterprise to help employees improve their quality and lead management decisions.

識別并詳細討論知識管理(KM)
知識管理是建立學習型組織的最重要手段之一,也是未來人力資源管理的核心。根據Fischer和Otswald(2001)的說法,KM的目標是建立一個包含組織中的技術和人文知識的知識系統,以通過諸如獲取,創建,共享,集成,記錄,訪問和更新等過程來獲得連續的專有技術。 。從系統的角度來看,信息系統構成了組織的智力資本,可以幫助企業做出正確的決策以應對市場變化。
在這個信息日新月異的時代,知識已成為財富的主要來源。不僅對于組織而言,對于個人而言,最緊迫的任務是知識管理,這可以使組織和個人更具競爭力并做出更好的決策。對于組織和個人而言,知識管理所帶來的無疑是巨大的機遇和挑戰。知識管理逐漸成為公司的標準化和正式流程。在KM的過程中,組織首先需要推斷他們擁有的信息,這些信息如何使公司的利益相關者受益,然后使每個人都盡可能地容易地通過信息系統獲取信息。一般而言,在實踐中,知識管理模型通常包含幾個通用步驟,即創建最佳實踐知識庫;在公司的客戶服務人員和產品制造人員之間建立信息通信網絡;建立正式流程,以確保在項目執行過程中獲得的經驗教訓可以傳遞給執行類似任務的同事。
Identify and discuss in detail, Knowledge Management (KM)
Knowledge management is one of the most vital means to establish a learning organization, and it is also the core of future human resource management. According to Fischer and Otswald (2001), what KM targets at is building a knowledge system that contains both technology and humanities in the organization to achieve continuous know-how through processes such as acquisition, creation, sharing, integration, recording, access and update. From a system perspective, information systems constitute the intellectual capital of an organization and can help corporations make the right decisions to respond to market changes.
In this booming age of information, knowledge has become the chief source of wealth. Not just for organizations, but for individuals, the most imperative task is knowledge management, which can make organizations and individuals more competitive and make better decisions. For organizations and individuals, what knowledge management has brought is definitely both a huge opportunity and challenge. KM gradually becomes a standardized and formal process of the firm. In the process of KM, organizations first need to infer the information that they have, how this information can benefit the company's stakeholders, and then make it as easy as possible for everyone to obtain information through the information system. Generally speaking, in practice, knowledge management models usually contains several common steps, namely creating a repository of best practices; establishing an information communication network between the company's customer service staff and product manufacturing staff; establishing formal processes to ensure that lessons learned during project execution can be passed on to colleagues performing similar tasks. 

確定并討論影響購買決策與定制構建(內部)軟件的因素
購買或定制構建軟件不斷困擾著尋求軟件解決方案的公司。現成的軟件一旦停頓就可以使用,而定制軟件可以根據個人需求進行開發。在性能,功能和可用性方面,兩種不同類型之間存在巨大差距。
要考慮的第一個因素是成本。現成的產品通常價格適中。許多公司沒有正確預測內部開發定制軟件所需的時間和資源。還需要考慮未來不可避免的增強和升級的成本。公司規模也很重要。與大型公司相比,小型公司的預算相對較小,可用于定制軟件的時間或資源有限。他們的要求也不太可能需要復雜的集成。因此,現成的解決方案可以滿足他們的需求。最后,最終用戶同樣重要,因為定制軟件需要花費大量金錢和時間來培訓用戶。培訓過程可能會重復進行并不斷更新,并且每個版本都會在以前的版本上有所改進。在這樣的反復試驗階段,對業務運營的影響可能超出公司的想象。
簡而言之,在建立和購買困境中沒有明顯的贏家。截然不同的情況直接導致了不同的結果。公司應該花一些時間仔細評估兩種選擇的利弊,因為做出錯誤的決定可能會付出高昂的代價

Identify and discuss the factors that affect the decision to buy versus custom-building (in-house) software
Purchasing or custom-building software continually plagues companies looking for software solutions. Ready-made software is ready to use once stalled while custom software can be developed according to individual needs. There is a huge gap between the two different types in terms of performance, functionality, and availability.
The first factor to consider is the cost. Off-the-shelf products are usually moderately priced. Many companies do not correctly predict the time and resources required to develop custom software in-house. The cost of unavoidable future enhancements and upgrades also needs to be considered. The company size also matters a lot. Compared with large companies, small companies have relatively small budgets and have limited time or resources available to customize the software. Their requirements are also unlikely to require complex integration. Therefore, off-the-shelf solutions may meet their needs. Lastly, the ultimate users are just as important because customizing software takes a lot of money and time to train users. The training process may be repeated and updated continuously, and each version will improve on the previous version. In such a trial and error phase, the impact on business operations may exceed the company's imagination.
In short, there are no clear winners in the build-and-buy dilemma. Distinct situation has directly led to distinct results. It should take companies some time to carefully evaluate the pros and cons of the two options since making wrong decision can be costly 
 
 
 
References:
Fischer, G. & Ostwald, J. (2001). Knowledge Management: Problems, Promises, Realities, and Challenges. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 16(1), 2001, pp.60-73.
Jarvenpaa, S.L. & Knoll, K. and Leidner, D.E. (1998). Is Anybody out There? Antecedents of Trust in Global Virtual Teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14, 29-64.
Lipnaek, J., & Stamps, J. (1997). Virtual teams: Reaching across space, time, and organizations with technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Townsend, A. D. S & Hendrickson, A. R. (1998). Virtual teams and the workplace of the future. Academy of Management Executive, 12(3), 17 - 29.
Zigurs, I. (2003). Leadership in virtual teams: oxymoron or opportunity? Organizational Dynamics, 31(4), 339-351.

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