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essay代寫原創論文案例-British Imperialism

文章類型:essay 發布時間:2019-07-29

英帝國主義是一個重要的歷史,它影響了整個世界的進程。 帝國主義雖然結束了,但如今對我們來說仍然是必要和有益的。 它如何處理合理性問題? 它如何使英國成為世界上的大國? 本文將討論英帝國主義的正當性問題,并從歷史背景,建立的巨大商業聯系,伴隨英帝國主義進行的現代化及其對英國帶來的文化影響等方面,說明英國如何成為世界上的主要力量。 世界。
British imperialism is an important history, that influenced the whole world process. Although the imperialism is ended, it is necessary and helpful for us to value it nowadays. How can it deal with the problem of justification? How it made British became a major power in the world? This essay will discuss the problem of justification of British imperialism and explains how the British could became the main power in the world from its historical background, the big commercial connection it built, the modernization that accompanied British imperialism and the cultural influence it brought to the world. 
首先,作為重要進步的工業革命導致了英國經濟的大幅增長,并為擴大英帝國主義提供了可能。

在工業革命期間,英國人民的生活水平急劇上升。當時,英國成為工廠的中心,向世界供應工業產品,從而獲得大筆收入。一方面,工業革命的迅速發展促進了英國的經濟發展,另一方面也促進了英國工業的發展。結果,它提高了英國公民的就業率并解決了許多社會問題。
 “ 1900年,大英帝國仍然是世界貿易流通的樞紐,因此商業要素不容忽視”(第43頁)。但是,這種對世界的商業影響與英國的工業革命息息相關,這使得制造和批量生產的成本降低成為可能。正如保羅·巴爾羅赫(Paul Balroch)所指出的,在工業化國家與非工業化國家之間存在著“打哈欠的鴻溝”(p44)。例如,當歐洲的收入在1800年至1913年之間增長超過200%時,非洲僅增長9%,亞洲僅增長1%。工業革命使社會以新技術和巨大利潤迅速發展。因此,許多原材料和半成品進入了英國。經濟和社會的飛速發展使英帝國主義的擴張成為可能。
First, the industrial revolution as an important progress led to a substantial increase in the British economy and made it possible for the expansion of British imperialism.
During the Industrial Revolution, the British people's living standards rose sharply. At that time, Britain became the center of factories, supplying the world with industrial products, so as to obtain their big income. On the one hand, the rapid progress of the industrial revolution has boosted the economic development of Britain, and on the other hand it has also promoted the development of British industry. As a result, it has increased the employment rate of British citizens and solved many social problems.
  “In 1900, the British Empire was still the hub in the circulation of world trade and therefore the commercial element cannot be ignored” (p43). However, this commercial influence on the world deeply related with the Industrial Revolution in Britain, which made it possible the low cost of manufacturing and mass production. As Paul Balroch points out, there is a “yawning chasm” (p44) between the industrialized states and the non-industrialized states. For example, when the income in Europe rose more than 200 percent between 1800 and 1913, it only rose 9 percent in Africa and 1 percent in Asia. The industrial revolution makes the society grown rapidly, with new techniques and great profit. Thanks to this, lots of raw materials and semi-finished product go into Britain. This rapid growth of economy and society made it possible for the expansion of British imperialism. 
第二個重要問題是在英帝國主義基礎上建立的商業聯系。
如前所述,工業革命為英國在世界貿易中發揮重要作用提供了有利的環境。英國帝國主義曾經是連接許多國家的商業活動的鏈條,例如印度,東南亞和中國。正如魯賓遜和加拉格爾指出的那樣,“非正式帝國”(p45)是在19世紀中葉,當時大英帝國繼續通過貿易擴大和統治世界,但沒有吞并。例如,“爭奪非洲”案是出于保護貿易路線的原因而發生的。 “他們得出的結論是,英國政府曾試圖在非正式控制下建立貿易;如有必要,請按規則進行交易”(第45頁)。
在此之前,鴉片戰爭已經在1830年代發生。在英國看來,這場戰爭并不是出于占領中國土地的理由,而是為了打開中國的大門并促進那里的貿易。英國將目標對準了靠近珠江口的香港。當時,人少,資源匱乏,但英國可以在那里建立據點。英國的全球戰略是盡可能少地占領,但控制一些關鍵的貿易場所。除香港外,還有其他地方,例如直布羅陀,埃及和新加坡。英國擁有大量的商品和原材料市場。在殖民化過程中,英國利用殖民地的資源不斷改善其國家發展并為成為世界霸主作出貢獻。
在這一交易過程中,我們需要注意的一件事是,英國的帝國政策是相當被動和保守的。對于英國帝國主義者而言,他們更加關注自己在全球范圍內的戰略作用,并試圖減少外界的影響,例如公眾和游說者的意見。所有關鍵決策均應由“官方思維”做出(p42)。
Second important issue is the commercial connection built under the British imperialism.
As mentioned before, the Industrial Revolution provided a favorable environment for British to play an important role in the world trade. The British Imperialism was once a chain that connected many countries’ commercial activities, such as India, South-East Asia and China. As Robinson and Gallagher pointed out, the “informal Empire” (p45), is in the middle of nineteenth century when British Empire continued to expand and dominate the world through trade, but without annexation. For example, the case of “scramble for Africa”, was happened out of the reason to protect trade routes. “They concluded that the British government had sought to establish trade with informal control if possible; trade with rule if necessary” (p45).
Before that, the Opium War already happened in the 1830s. In Britain's view, this war was not out of the reason to occupy China's land, but to open China's door and promote the trade there. The British targeted Hong Kong, which was close to the Pearl River estuary. At that time, there were few people and no resources, but Britain could establish a stronghold there. Britain's global strategy is to occupy as little as possible, but control some key places for trading. In addition to Hong Kong, there are also other places such as Gibraltar, Egypt and Singapore. Britain has a vast market for commodities and raw materials. In the process of colonization, Britain used the resources of the colony to continuously improve its national development and contribute to becoming a world hegemony.
In this trading process, one thing we need to notice is that, the British imperial policy is quite reactive and conservative. For the British Imperialists, they concerned more about their strategic role worldwide and tried to decrease the effects from external world, such as the opinion from public and the lobbyists.  All the key decisions should be made by “official mind” (p42).
第三,伴隨著英國帝國主義的現代化。
以英國對印度的殖民統治為例。英國統治者指的是1858年至1947年英國對印度次大陸的殖民統治。人們對帝國主義如何促進印度的現代化有意見。它涉及許多不同的社會方面,例如教育的文化化。廢除奴隸制和奴隸制。 “英國人認為,他們通過廢除奴隸制,奴役和暴民來推行現代化,他們對宣教工作有堅定的信念,使他們得以維持,他們看到了在教育英語化以及印度,東南亞和中東地區的開放中受益。中國貿易”(第36頁)。
完全從英國的角度出發,卻無視當地社會是一個非常有力的理由。我認為,英國帝國主義可能確實將現代化作為一種??歷史現象帶給了其他國家,但這不是出于他們的緣故,也不是帝國主義的真正原因。此外,很難說這種現代化是好是壞,因為在這個過程中,本土文化可能會被判斷,忽視和拋棄。
Thirdly, the modernization that accompanied the British Imperialism.
Take the example of British colonial rule over India. The British Raj refers to the British colonial rule of the Indian Subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. There are opinions about how the imperialism contributed to the modernization of India. It related with many different social aspects, for instance, the anglicizations of education. the abolishment of slavery and suttee. “The British believed they were introducing modernization by the abolition of slavery, suttee and thuggee, they were sustained by a strong faith in missionary work and they saw benefits in the Anglicisation of education and in the opening up of Indian, South-East Asian and Chinese trade” (p36).
It is a very strong justification that totally from the point of view of British, but ignore the local societies. In my opinion, the British Imperialism might really brought modernization to other countries as a history phenomenon, but it is not for their sake and it is neither the true reason of imperialism.  In addition, it is hard to say this kind of modernization is good or not, because in this process, the native culture might be judged, ignored and abandoned. 
最后但并非最不重要的一點是,由于殖民化而產生的文化影響和社會認同也促進了英國在世界上的力量。
“毫無疑問,文化是帝國主義景觀的一個特征,遠遠超出了語言和權力的狹窄視野”(p204)。嚴格地說,帝國主義不僅是一種消極現象,而且具有積極意義。它塑造了英國精神,并已成為其社會和民族認同的一部分。帝國的概念不僅與貿易和征服有關,而且與“冒險,騎士義務和犧牲”有關(p204)。
此外,大量的人口流動和移民使英國文化傳播到世界許多地方。香港人仍然像英國人一樣有很多習慣,例如,他們更喜歡英國風味的早餐,并且英語和廣東話混合在一??起。另一方面,英國的影響力也體現在殖民地地區文化消費品的口味上,例如中國瓷器,中東地毯和南亞茶,這也有助于當地文化的繁榮。
總之,英國帝國主義立足于英國工業革命的歷史背景,在世界范圍內建立了巨大的貿易鏈,為英國帶來了豐厚的利潤。出于正當的理由,它與當地社會的現代化有關,也有利于全球文化交流。所有這些因素,使得英國在一定時期內成為世界上的大國。
Last but not least, the cultural influence and social identity due to the colonization also contributes to the power of Britain in the world.
“Culture is undoubtedly a feature of the imperialist landscape that stretches far beyond the narrow horizons of language and power” (p204). Critically speaking, Imperialism is not only a negative phenomenon, it has some positive meaning. It shaped the British spirits and has become part of their social and national identity. The concept of Empire is not only related with trade and conquer, but also relates with “adventure, chivalric duty and sacrifice” (p204).
Furthermore, the big population mobility and migration makes the British culture spread to many parts of the world. The people in Hong Kong still have a lot of habit like British, for example, they prefer breakfast with some British style, and they speak in a way mixed English with Cantonese. On the other hand, the influence of Britain also shows in the taste for cultural consumables from the colonized area, such as the Chinese porcelain, Middle East rugs, and South Asia tea, which helps the prosperous of the local culture as well.
In conclusion, British Imperialism based on the history background of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, and it created huge trade chain all over the world, which brought Britain lots of profit. For the justification, it related with the modernization of the local societies, and also beneficial for the global cultural exchanges. All these elements, made British became a major power in the world in a certain period of history. 

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