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ESSAY代寫原創案例-Political Interference in the Film To Live

文章類型:essay 發布時間:2020-02-26

張藝謀的電影《活著》是余華同名小說的改編。這是一部以富貴生活為題材的充滿政治意味的電影。在影片中,主人公富貴在人生的風風雨雨中起伏不定,在1940年代至1970年代的動蕩時代中,他的家庭大宅,父母,兒子和女兒遭受了損失。富貴人的生活經歷了不同的歷史時期,其中包括中國內戰,與地主的斗爭,大躍進和文化大革命等強大的政治影響力。我們可以從富貴的堅持和勇氣中學到很多東西,就像電影中所展示的那樣。然而,在這些困難和對手的挑戰下,富貴及其家人面臨的后果以及他們隨后的反應,這表明富貴的家庭是卷入政治運動動蕩的平民百姓的縮影。因此,這部電影具有諷刺意味的是,政治權威企圖加強國家權力并改善普通百姓的生活條件,但使人民失望,甚至使情況惡化。
Zhang Yimou’s film To Live is an adaption of Yu Hua’s novel of the same name. It is a film full of political implications under the description of the life of Fugui. In the film, Fugui, the main character, experiences ups and downs in life and suffers the loss of his family mansion, parents, son, and daughter in the erratic era from 1940s to 1970s in China. Fugui lives his life through various historical periods with strong political influences, including the Chinese Civil War, battle against the landowner, the Great Leap Forward, and Cultural Revolution. We could certainly learn a lot from the persistence and courage of Fugui to live on as the film shows. However, beneath those difficulties and adversaries Fugui and his family face and their subsequent reactions, it suggests that Fugui’s family is a miniature of the common people involved in the turbulence of political movements. Thus, the film shows an irony that political authority attempts to strengthen the national power and to improve living conditions of common people but fail the people and even made it worse. 

曾經統治著國家的社會制度基礎設施被掩埋,導致了巨大的動蕩,而平民百姓的信念也被扭曲,以致與其他國家一樣貧窮。共產黨在中國內戰中上臺后,富貴回到家,與賈震及其子女團聚。富貴應征入國民黨軍隊后,共產黨政府幫助賈鎮找到一份工作,為白開水服務。在中國共產黨政府的領導下,人民似乎過上了良好的生活。然而,福桂目睹龍兒因為被指控為房東而被拒絕執行并拒絕豪宅并將其燒毀(他通過賭博從福桂中獲勝)后被處決,他是如此害怕,以至于有一天他會發生這種情況,因為他曾經是真正的房東。當鎮長說富貴的家庭宅邸的木頭很好,大火持續了三天時,富貴迅速而緊張地回答說,這不是他家人的木頭,而是反革命主義者的木頭,試圖衰敗。與房東級別的任何聯系。嘉貞還掛斷了富桂參加革命的證書,希望它能保護他們,即使他從未真正為革命奮斗過。對于朗格和富貴來說,他們的社會階層取決于他們的賭博。富貴在賭博中失去了家庭豪宅,成為了貧窮的農民,并且在與地主的斗爭中保持了頭腦。由于運氣好,朗格獲勝并獲得了富貴的家族豪宅。但是,朗格被視為土地所有者,并由共產主義政府開槍射擊。窮人是安全的,而富人應該死。
The infrastructure of social system that used to rule the country was buried and lead to huge unrest and the belief of common people are distorted to aim to be as poor as others. After the Communist Party took power in the Chinese Civil War, Fugui returns home and reunites with Jiazhen and their children. The communist government helps Jiazhen find a job to serve boiled water, when Fugui is conscripted to the KMT army. Under the leadership of the Chinese communist government, it seems the people start making a good living. However, after Fugui witnesses Long’er being executed because he was accused to be a landlord and refused to give out the mansion and burned it, which he won from Fugui by gambling, he is so scared that this could happen to him someday because he used to be the real landlord. When the head of the town says that the wood of Fugui’s family mansion is so good that the fire last for three days, and Fugui replies quickly and nervously that it’s not the wood of his family but the wood of anti-revolutionists, trying to decline any connections to the class of landlords. Jiazhen also hangs up Fugui’s certificate of participating in the revolution, hoping it could protect them, even though he has never truly fought for the revolution willingly. For Long’er and Fugui, their social classes are decided by their gamble. Fugui loses his family mansion in gambling and becomes poor peasant, and keeps his head above ground in the battle against landowner. Due to good luck, Long’er wins and gets Fugui’s family mansion. However, Long’er is considered as a landowner and shot by the communist government. Poor people are safe, while the rich people should die. 

孔子說,折磨人民是不平等,而不是勞動力的稀缺。它在電影中很好地適用。在新中國成立初期,人們主張窮人越多越好。農民家庭的財產遠遠超過富裕或知識分子家庭的財產。就像賭博一樣,窮人贏了,富人和租來的人卻輸了。社會金字塔是顛倒的。福貴因貧窮而感到榮幸。同時,富貴掙扎著收支平衡,從黎明到黃昏都在努力。他的孩子尤清和鳳霞必須承擔家庭負擔,從小就無法良好的睡眠。地主被擊敗了,但是富貴和一些貧窮的農民仍然生活在痛苦中,充滿了共產主義的幻想。
大躍進旨在建立一個發達的,平等的社會,對共產主義社會充滿幻想,但最終卻擾亂并加劇了人們的生活條件。福貴是一個勤奮負責的人,與他以前的花花公子完全不同。響應共產黨政府的號召,富貴在家里拿出所有鐵制工具后,積極為國家做出自己的貢獻。除了富貴,每個家庭都捐出任何含鐵的東西。沒有鍋碗瓢盆,人們進入人民公社并在頭幾年享受平等主義。牛先生告訴富貴和賈鎮,共產黨政府為他們做飯,他們每天都可以飽肚子。平等主義強調每個民族之間的平均分配,卻忽略了世界上沒有絕對平等的事實。福貴和其他城鎮居民為平等主義付出了沉重的代價。他們被要求日夜制造鋼鐵,以達到每年生產1070萬公噸鋼鐵的目標,這在中國1950年代是不可能的。每個人都非常疲倦,包括富貴的兒子尤慶。他下單 昏昏欲睡的右慶參加學校區長的歡迎儀式,因為他擔心如果右慶缺席,會被甩在后面。在學校里,缺乏睡眠的右慶繼續在墻邊睡覺,忘了吃餃子。在隔離墻的另一側,區長春生由于疲勞而撞入隔離墻。游情被壓在墻下,成為大躍進革命的犧牲品。
Confucius said that what tortures people is inequality rather than scarcity of labor forces, what gnaws their souls is chaos instead of poverty. It applies well in the film. In the early years of New China, people advocate that the poorer the better. The property of peasant family is far superior to that of the rich or intellectual family. Like gambling, poor people win and rich people and leared people lose. The pyramid of society is upside down. Fugui feels honored because of poverty. At the same time, Fugui struggles to make ends meet and works from dawn to dusk. His children, Youqing and Fengxia have to bear the family burden and cannot have a good sleep since childhood. The landowners are defeated, but Fugui and some poor peasants still lives in misery with a fantasy of communism.
The Great Leap Forward aims to establish a developed and equal society with strong fantasy of communistic society, but finally disrupts and aggravates people’s living conditions. Fugui has been hardworking and responsible man, totally different from the dandy he used to be. Responding to the call of the communist government, Fugui is active in contributing his own efforts to the country as he takes out all iron-made tools in his family. Besides Fugui, every family donates anything containing iron. Without pots and pans, people enter the People’s Commune and enjoy the equalitarianism in the first few years. Mr. Niu tells Fugui and Jiazhen that the communist government cooks for them and they can have a full stomach every day. The equalitarianism emphasizes the average distribution between every people but neglects the facts that there is no absolute equality in the world. Fugui and other town people pay a heavy price for the equalitarianism. They are required to make steel day and night to reach the goal of 10.7 million tones steel production per year, which is impossible in 1950s of China. Everyone is so tired, including Youqing, the son of Fugui. He orders sleepy Youqing to participate the welcome ceremony of the district governor at school because he is afraid of being left behind if Youqing is absent. In the school, sleep-deprived Youqing continues to sleep on the side of a wall and forgets eating the dumplings. On the other side of the wall, the district governor, Chunsheng, drives into the wall due to fatigue. Youqing is crushed under the wall and becomes the sacrifice of the Great Leap Revolution. 

大躍進的目標更加注重數量,違反了生產原則,破壞了人們的正常生活習慣和生活方式。在某種程度上,無序的生活導致了右慶的死亡。此外,當所有人盲目煉鋼時,一些社會生產活動就會被忽略。我們可以想象政府僅靠制造鋼鐵就能為人民提供支持。大躍進革命導致中國社會生產力的落后。在電影的結尾,我們可以發現富貴和賈鎮仍然靠著熱水和面條吃,這比米飯便宜。
文化大革命以解放思想的旗幟操縱人們的思想,迫害知識分子和學者,這間接導致了鳳霞的死亡。在影片中,皮影戲套件成為不適當的主題,這可能會給富貴和他的家人帶來麻煩。為了遵守毛主席的話并確保自己的安全,富貴要求他的女兒鳳霞燒掉那些過去被視為反動的代表皇帝和皇后的木偶。皮影戲多次挽救了福貴的生命,對福貴來說意義重大。福貴有能力用皮影戲來振奮人心,這意味著皮影戲在人們的精神生活中起著重要的作用。盡管如此,共產黨政府仍將這一傳統視為災難,并說服人們完全相信毛澤東的話。焚燒皮影戲旨在控制人們的思想,并以無形的方式囚禁人民。此外,在鳳霞的婚禮上,人們找不到喜慶的紅色,只有毛主席。結婚禮物是毛的話,毛的徽章和毛的照片。鳳霞和二喜身著綠色軍服,婚禮上的音樂被革命性的歌曲所取代。共產黨政府限制人民的行為,以增強毛澤東思想的影響力。對知識分子的迫害將毛澤東的思想推向了極致。鳳霞在醫院分娩時,醫院由經驗不足的護士紅衛兵占領。經驗豐富的醫生被關在牛棚里,在那里他們在身體和精神上受到壓迫。面對鳳霞產后流血,護士們無能為力。盡管王醫生具有專業知識,但他當時無法拯救風霞,因為他受到紅衛兵的嚴重折磨并變得麻木。文革殺死了富貴和嘉貞的獨生子鳳霞。埃爾西隸屬于紅衛兵是荒謬的。鳳霞之死是富貴和嘉貞的最后一擊。他們沒有什么可失去的,因為他們已經失去了政治運動中的一切。
The goal of the Great Leap Forward pays more attention to quantity and violates the production principle, disrupting people’s normal routines and patterns of living. To some extent, the disordered life leads to the death of Youqing. Besides, some social productive activities are ignored when all people are making steel blindly. We can just imagine how a government can support the people depending merely on making steel. The Great Leap Revolution causes the lagging productivity of Chinese society. In the end of the film, we can find that Fugui and Jiazhen still live on delivering hot water and eat noodles, which is cheaper than rice.
Under the banner of emancipating minds, Cultural Revolution manipulates people’s minds and persecutes intellectuals and scholars, which indirectly leads to Fengxia’s death. In the film, the shadow puppet kit becomes an inappropriate subject, which could bring Fugui and his family trouble. To follow Chairman Mao’s words, and to keep themselves safe, Fugui asks his daughter, Fengxia, to burn those puppets representing emperors and queens in the past, who are considered as reactionary. The shadow puppets save Fugui’s life several times and mean a great deal for Fugui. Fugui has the ability to cheer people up with shadow puppets, which implies that shadow puppets play an important role in people’s spiritual life. Nevertheless, the communist government regards this tradition as disaster and persuades people to believe solely in Mao’s words. Burning the shadow puppet aims to control people’s minds and imprison the people invisibly. Furthermore, in Fengxia’s wedding, people cannot find festive red, but Chair Mao. The wedding gifts are Mao’s words, Mao’s badges, and Mao’s photos. Fengxia and Er’xi are in green army uniforms and the wedding music is replaced by revolutionary songs. The communist government restricts people’s behaviors to strengthen the influence of Mao’s thoughts. The persecution of intellectuals pushes Mao’s thoughts to the extreme. When Fengxia gives birth in the hospital, the hospital is occupied by the Red Guards, who are inexperience nurses. The seasoned doctors are imprisoned in the cowshed, where they are oppressed physically and spiritually. Faced with Fengxia’s postpartum bleed, the nurses can do nothing to help Fengxia. Although Doctor Wang has professional knowledge, he has no ability to save Fengxia at that time because he is tormented seriously by the Red Guards and becomes numb. The Cultural Revolution kills Fengxia, the only child of Fugui and Jiazhen. It is ridiculous that Erxi belongs to a member of the Red Guards. The death of Fengxia is the last blow for Fugui and Jiazhen. They have nothing to lose, because they have lost everything in the political movement. 
 
在《生存》中,張藝謀利用富貴的生活來鼓勵人們在嚴峻的意外情況下繼續生活,并保持積極積極的態度來尋找生活方式。但是要更深入地思考影片中帶下劃線的筆錄,這是對共產主義政府的荒謬政策的無聲抱怨。當政治勢力試圖干擾百姓的正常生活時,往往會導致更糟糕的結果。共產黨成立了中華人民共和國,旨在給中國人民帶來新的更好的生活。雖然一系列政治運動只會破壞和平生活,并阻礙社會發展。在與土地所有者的斗爭中,共產主義政府決定人民在貧富之間的社會階級,這導致了對貧困和人民悲慘生活的提倡。大躍進革命錯誤地評估了中國的生產力,使人民的生活狀況惡化,并導致右慶的死亡。共產主義領導人企圖通過擺脫傳統并在文化大革命中關押知識分子來控制人民的思想。如果沒有文化大革命,鳳霞可以救了。沒有強烈的政治干預,富貴的生活會更好。
In To Live, Zhang Yimou takes use of Fugui’s life to encourage people to live on under severe unexpected circumstances and stay positive to find a way to live. But to think deeper of the underlined transcripts in the film, it is silent complaint about the absurd policies of the communist government. When the political power tries to interfere with the normal life of common people, it often causes a worse result. The Communist Party established the People’s Republic of China aims to bring new and better life to Chinese people. While a series of political movements only disrupt the peaceful life and obstruct of social development. In the battle against the landowner, the communist government decides people’s social classes on the rich and poor, which leads to the advocating of poverty and people’s miserable life. The Great Leap Revolution evaluates the productive power of China mistakenly, worsens people’s living condition, and causes the death of Youqing. The communist leaders attempt to control the people’s minds through getting rid of the tradition, and imprisoning the intellectuals in the Cultural Revolution. Fengxia could be saved if there is no Cultural Revolution. The life of Fugui could be better without the strong political interference. 

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